Course overview

The Essentials of Relay Protection and Control in Transmission & Distribution Systems

Learn power system protection and control concepts, protection schemes and relays, primary & secondary equipment, and electrical wiring with practical examples. 85 lectures in 9h 11m total course length.
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 What's included?

Protection & control systems are a critical part of the transmission & distribution systems that feed power to mega-cities & industries. This course aims to introduce all of the basic principles associated with electrical power systems protection with examples. I have tried my best to include a practical example from the field as I have 17 years of field experience in substations. I have included real examples, equipment nameplate, single line diagrams, real field examples.

By the end of the course, the student will be able to identify all of the key components of a protection & control system, understand how all of these components fit together to create a fully integrated system, protection fundamental concept, protection schemes & relays, battery
charger and batteries.

The course will go into detail for the following key topics:
  • Protection system, power quality, reliability, fault and event recording
  • Overcurrent, earth fault relay operation
  • Basic principles behind electrical protection philosophy
  • Direction overcurrent  and definite time & inverse time overcurrent relay operation
  • Cascade tripping, Comtrade files, how to localize the faults
  • Magnitude, differential & phase comparison principles
  • Step & touch potential concept, Voltage or Current which is lethal
  • Working principle of Breaker failure relay
  • Why gravel is used in substation, How to protect equipment & human
  • Basic electrical theory, Ohms Law, KVL, KCL, calculate HV & LV rated & short circuit current transformer
  • Earth Leakage Relay, How it operates
  • Per-unit system, how to evaluate arc flash hazard using the per-unit system
  • Protection philosophy, Selectivity, Sensitivity, Speed, Reliability,  Simplicity, and Economy.
  • Three-phase systems, balanced, unbalanced, three-phase fault, phase to phase fault, phase to ground fault
  • Relationship between selectivity and zones of protection. open & close zones, tele protection
  • Symmetrical components
  • Primary, backup & duplicate protection
  • Primary & secondary equipment, electrical wiring basics
  • Relay classification, electromechanical, digital, microprocessor & numerical relays
  • Auxiliary relays, main relays, and contactors
  • Phase & ration compensation in transformer differential protection, interposing CTs
  • Difference between Circuit Breaker & Isolator & Load Break Switch
  • The concept of interlocking
  • Batteries & charger, how they work, Single Line Diagram of DC system, Single Line Diagram of Charger
  • Surge arrestor & surge counter
  • LCC, Gas diagram, Gas compartment, Gas permeable & Gas tight
    and introduction to Relay Coordination
  • GIS, AIF & MV switchgear types
  • CB operating cycle, pole discrepancy, anti pumping, trip circuit supervision schemes.
  • Complete protection engineering cycles: design phase, manufacturing phase, shipment phase, inspection, T&C, maintenance
  • Circuit breaker control and protection systems and how they interact with the protection systems.
  • Three-phase currents and see how they can be broken down into sequence components and harmonics
  • ANSI device codes
  • Basic principles behind current transformers, how they operate, and need to be connected
  • Internal, external & through faults
  • Different types of earth fault relays and see how they can be used to protect some key equipment


  • Knowledge of basic electrical principles
  • A basic understanding of electrical engineering
24 sections • 85 lectures • 9h 11m total length

 Who Is This Course For

  • Electrical Engineering Undergraduates
  • Electrical Engineering Graduates
  • Technicians
  • Power/Utility Engineer
  • Anyone interested in electrical engineering

Muhammad Kashif

Professional electrical engineer with +17 years experience in transmission & distribution and protection & control.
About Muhammad
Muhammad Kashif Shamshad is an Electrical Engineer and has more than 17 years of experience in operation & maintenance, erection, testing project management, consultancy, supervision, and commissioning of Power Plant, GIS, and AIS high voltage substations ranging up to 500 kV HVAC & ±660kV HVDC  more than 10 years experience is with Siemens Saudi Arabia.

He completed over 20 high voltage substation projects, Operation & Maintenace of Substation & Power plants in Pakistan and Saudi Arabia for different electric utilities including Saudi Electricity Company (SEC), Saudi Aramco, SABIC, Marafiq, National Transmission & Despatch Company (NTDC), WAPDA, and K-Electric.

Also, he led testing and commissioning teams to implement electrical infrastructure projects for many types of industrial clients (Steel, Petrochemical, etc.) in both countries, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia.

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